Kubernetes is a container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. It is a popular choice for running cloud native applications, and it is used by organizations of all sizes.

Kubernetes architecture is based on a client-server model. The client side is responsible for submitting requests to the server side, and the server side is responsible for managing the cluster.

The Kubernetes cluster consists of two main components:

  • Control plane: The control plane is responsible for managing the cluster as a whole. It includes components such as the Kubernetes API server, the scheduler, and the controller manager.
  • Worker nodes: Worker nodes are the physical or virtual machines where containerized applications are deployed.

The control plane and worker nodes communicate with each other using a network. The control plane uses the network to send commands to the worker nodes, and the worker nodes use the network to report their status to the control plane.

Kubernetes API server

The Kubernetes API server is the central component of the control plane. It exposes a REST API that can be used to manage the cluster. The API server is responsible for validating requests and ensuring that they are carried out correctly.

Scheduler

The scheduler is responsible for assigning pods to worker nodes. Pods are the basic unit of scheduling in Kubernetes. A pod is a group of one or more containers that are scheduled together on the same worker node.

Controller manager

The controller manager is responsible for maintaining the desired state of the cluster. For example, the controller manager can be used to ensure that the number of pods running for a particular application is always equal to the desired number.

Worker nodes

Worker nodes are the physical or virtual machines where containerized applications are deployed. Worker nodes run the Kubernetes kubelet process. The kubelet process is responsible for managing the containers on the worker node.

Kubernetes pods

Pods are the basic unit of scheduling in Kubernetes. A pod is a group of one or more containers that are scheduled together on the same worker node. Pods share the same network namespace and filesystem, which makes them easy to manage.

Kubernetes services

Services are used to expose pods to the outside world. A service can be used to provide load balancing, service discovery, and other features.

Kubernetes deployment

A deployment is a way to manage the lifecycle of pods. A deployment can be used to create, update, and delete pods. Deployments can also be used to roll out new versions of applications in a controlled manner.

Kubernetes architecture overview

The following diagram shows an overview of the Kubernetes architecture:

[Diagram of Kubernetes architecture]

The diagram shows the following components:

  • Client: The client is a user or application that submits requests to the Kubernetes API server.
  • Kubernetes API server: The Kubernetes API server is the central component of the control plane. It exposes a REST API that can be used to manage the cluster.
  • Scheduler: The scheduler is responsible for assigning pods to worker nodes.
  • Controller manager: The controller manager is responsible for maintaining the desired state of the cluster.
  • Worker node: A worker node is a physical or virtual machine where containerized applications are deployed.
  • Kubelet: The kubelet process is responsible for managing the containers on the worker node.
  • Pod: A pod is a group of one or more containers that are scheduled together on the same worker node.
  • Service: A service is used to expose pods to the outside world.
  • Deployment: A deployment is a way to manage the lifecycle of pods.

Communication between Kubernetes components

The Kubernetes components communicate with each other using a network. The control plane and worker nodes use the network to send commands to each other. The control plane also uses the network to collect metrics and status information from the worker nodes.

Kubernetes configuration

Kubernetes is configured using a YAML file called the kubeconfig file. The kubeconfig file contains information about the Kubernetes cluster, such as the address of the API server and the credentials for accessing the cluster.

Kubernetes command-line interface (CLI)

Kubernetes provides a command-line interface (CLI) called kubectl. kubectl can be used to manage the Kubernetes cluster from the command line.

Kubernetes dashboard

Kubernetes also provides a web-based dashboard that can be used to manage the cluster. The dashboard provides a graphical user interface for managing pods, services, deployments, and other Kubernetes resources.

Kubernetes ecosystem

Kubernetes has a rich ecosystem of add-ons and extensions that can be used to extend its capabilities. For example, there are add-ons for monitoring, logging, and security.

Benefits of Kubernetes

Kubernetes offers a number of benefits

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